1. The .eso site image shows that Betelgeuse could extend even a bit beyond the orbit of Jupiter. What complicates the answer, aside from margin of error, is the variability of the star. Burnham reports there were periods in recent centuries where the size could have been as small as the Mars orbit.
2. Amateurs can make two measures on binary systems from their backyards. The companion’s position angle is the number of degrees from north measured clockwise as we do with a terrestrial compass. Observers tap their scopes in the direction of Polaris to see where north is in their views. Separation is the estimated angular distance between two stars. In many cases these parameters take decades to change significantly; other systems might cycle around in a matter of days. In the study of widely separated binaries we may never be able to determine the orbits.
3. The nebulae, in numerical order, have the official titles Running Man, Flame, [Great] Orion Nebula, Reflection nebula, Horsehead, and Monkey. If you have improvements over these, let me know. There are many reflection nebulae, so I think this eerie #4 neb needs a more descriptive title. I propose Devil’s Arch.
?????? ????? is Number Traps
1. The totals for each world leader are 4038. This is no coincidence since the data as constructed force sums equal to, at least until January 1, twice the current year.
2. The result will be 19 regardless of the chosen digit. If we use n for that digit and simplify the expression we get 10(1.9n) / n.
3. When we sum the digits of any whole number we a "casting out nines." If we continue the summing we end with the remainder after all the nines are extracted. The instructions insure that you arrive at 63 times your number plus 115. After all the nines are gone you are left with Lucky 7.
4. The instructions insure that the sum of your four chosen numbers is 88. The grid is an addition table where the addends total 88. Your choices will involve each of the eight addends once.
penny nickel quarter nickel 0.36 penny dime nickel penny 0.17 dime nickel quarter penny 0.41 dime quarter quarter dime 0.70 0.22 0.45 0.80 0.17 1.64
Challenge 1. 29 = 100 + 60 – 150 + 14 + 5. Other solutions are numerous.
Challenge 2. 250 = (95 x 2) + 60
Challenge 3. 187 = (25 x 11) – 85 – 3; using just two numbers ... wouldn't you like to know.
other solutions are possible.
Department of Words
From left to right find INSIST.
From right to left find BURDEN.
Puzzle 1. SMOTHERING Puzzle 2. ASTONISHED
Fit for Four
1. jack 2. sun 3. pop 4. thunder
5. sock 6. going 7. moon 8. dust
Across, in row order: Italy, Lysol, Olive; animal, male, lemons; stores, result, ultra; foster, raw, awash; snide, deploy, loyal.
Down, in column order: Eton, one-two, wound; plume, merit, teds; O Sole, olestra, straps; blimp, imply, plywood; evener, nerds, soap.
Across 1. Humid (hidden in clue) 4. Viper (wiper – w + v) 5 Noels (no Ls in lullabies)
Down 1. Haven (have nots – o, t, s) 2. Maple (anagram) 3. Dares (anagram)
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